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Full text of "General information regarding the Metropolitan Water Works. April, 1898"

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Metropolitan Water Board. 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING THE METROPOLITAN 

WATER WORKS. 



April, 1898. 



The new source of supply is the water of the South Branch of the 
Nashua River, which is to be diverted at a point in the town of Clinton. 
This new source of supply is to be used in connection with the Sudbury 
and Cochituate sources, from which Boston now takes water, and the 
Nashua, Sudbury and Cochituate waters are to be supplied to the Met- 
ropoHtan Water District. The Mystic system has been abandoned. 

The Wachusett Dam is to be built at Clinton and the Wachusett 
Reservoir constructed. 

The water diverted at CHnton from the Nashua River flows through 
the Wachuset Aqueduct to the Sudbury Reservoir at Southborough, and 
thence flows through existing reservoirs and works to Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir. 

AREA OF WATERSHEDS. 

Nashua, . 118.23 square miles. 

Sudbury, 75.2 " " 

Cochituate, 18.87 " " 

Total, ...... 212.30 " " 



DAILY CAPACITY IN DRIEST YEAR. 



Cochituate and Sudbury, excluding Sudbury Reservoir, 
Cochituate and Sudbury, including Sudbury Reservoir, 
Cochituate and Sudbury, including Sudbury Reservoir 

and flow from Nashua River, ..... 
Nashua, Cochituate and Sudbury, after construction 

of Wachusett Reservoir, ..... 



48,000,000 gallons. 
62,000,000 ' ' 

101,000,000 " 

173,000,000 " 



More water can be obtained when needed by adding sources in cen- 
tral and western Massachusetts, with the following totals : — 

Aft-sf addirg Ass?.bet;, ., -.o,,,*^ • - • 201,000,000 gallons. 

After sid^iVgjJppef, WatJe, '.>><■'.• . . , , - .',^ . 272,000,000 " 

After adding LVwer War^''afid"'b wife," .' > ^ . ' . 472,000,000 " 

After adding Deer(ifeld, ';'>;;•. . , . 870,000,000 " 

After adding V<^«stfield, ' 1 » ^-..» . . . 990,000,000 " 



W- 



PROPOSED RESERVOIR AND DAM UPON THE NASHUA RIVER. 



WACHUSETT RESERVOIR IN CLINTON, BOYLSTON. WEST BOYLSTON 

AND STERLING. 



including the islands 



Water surface, 

Total contents, 

Length, 

Maximum width, 

Total length of shore line, not 

Maximum depth, 

Average depth, 

Length of railroad flooded, 

Length of roads flooded. 

Inhabitants on land required for reservoir, 

Dwellings on land required for reservoir, 

Mills on land required for reservoir. 

School-houses on land required for reservoir. 

Churches on land required for reservoir, . 



4,195 acres, or 6 
63,068, 



,56 square miles, 
000,000 gallons. 

8.41 miles. 

2.05 miles 

35.40 miles. 

129 feet. 

46 feet. 

6 56 miles. 

19.21 miles. 

2'2^. 

6. 



WACHUSETT DAM AT CLINTON. 

To be built of masonry and founded on solid rock. 

Length across valley at water level, .... 1,250 feet. 

Maximum height of water above bed of river, . . 129 " 

Maximum height of water above surface of rock, . . 184 " 

Water level, above Boston city base, .... 395 " 



DISTANCES ALONG VALLEY FROM MAIN DAM AND APPROXIMATE 
DEPTHS OF WATER IN PROPOSED RESERVOIR. 



Distance from 
Main Dam. 

Miles. 


Depth of water in 
bottom of valley. 

Feet. 


Remarks. 



I 

1-3 

2 

2.6 

3 
4 

4.4 

5 

5-7 

6 

7 

7-4 
8 
8.8 


129 
1 10 

105 
100 
80. 

§5 
80 

70 

73 

57 

55. 

30 

20 




Opposite South Clinton station. 
Opposite Boylston station. 

Highway crossing. 

Opposite Clarendon Mills. 
Opposite West Boylston station. 

Opposite railroad crossing, Oakdale. 



Beside the masonry dam, long dikes are to be built on both sides to 
prevent the water of the reservoir from overflowing its banks. 

A temporary dam has been built in Clinton just above the site of the 
proposed Wachusett Dam.», ;A'WQV>deq.'ftcime has*^(Jen;bni>lt t©:cpnnect 
with the beginning of the ^4s&ua'*JV'ciu'€jdilGi,'th5(5ugh.Avi^k:li»'the water 
is diverted into the aqueduct. The buJJding.af tlie-te-mporary dam was 
also a necessary preliminary to the con€trli(!tidn of thb*main dam. 



, • c • • 



'WACHUSETT AQUEDUCT. 

This aqueduct has been built a distance of 12 miles from the site of 
the dam at Clinton, through Berlin, Northborough and ^Marlborough, 
to the new Sudbury Reservoir at Southborough. 

The aqueduct includes : — 

First, — Two miles rock tunnel lined throughout on the bottom and arched where 
the rock is not sufficiently stable. Nearly half of the tunnel required arching. 
The tunnel where not arched is 13 feet 6 inches wide, and 11 feet 10 inches high ; 
where arched, 12 feet 2 inches wide, and 10 feet 10 inches high. The slope is one 
foot in 5,000. 

Second. — Seven miles of masonry aqueduct built and covered with earth. The 
bottom and side walls are built of Rosendale- cement concrete masonry, lined with 
brickwork. The upper arch is built of Portland cement concrete masonry. This 
portion of the aqueduct is ii feet 6 inches wide, and 10 feet 6 inches high; the 
slope is one foot in 2,500. 

Third. — A seven-arch granite bridge carrying the aqueduct over the Assabet River. 
This bridge has a total length of 359 feet. The lower part of the aqueduct on 
the bridge has the same shape as adjacent portions of the aqueduct, but the upper 
part is rectangular and covered with iron beams and brick arches. To insure 
water tightness, an interior lining of lead has been built into the brick work, 8 
inches back from the inside of the aqueduct. 

Fourth. — Three miles of open channel. This channel is 20 feet wide on the bottom, 
and has side slopes of three horizontal to one vertical. A minimum' depth of about 
6 feet of water is maintained in it by means of a dam at the lower end and 
another dam rather more than half way up the channel. The purpose of these 
dams is to cause a slow velocity, which will not scour the banks, and to avoid 
trouble with ice in winter. The channel empties into the upper end of one of the 
branches of Sudbury Reservoir. 



SUDBURY RESERVOIR AND DAM. 

This reservoir and dam was designed and begun by the city of 
Boston. The Metropolitan Water Board assumed the construction in 
1896, and they are now substantially completed. 



Water surface, 



Contents, ..... 

Maximum depth. 

Average depth, .... 

Total length of dam at water level. 

Water level above Boston city base, 

Nuhiber of cubic yards of soil and other earth removed 

and to be removed in cleaning the reservoir, . . 4,600,000 



2 square miles. 



7,500,000,000 gallons. 
65 feet. 
19 ". 
1,865 " 
260 " 



The central portion of the dam for a length of 300 feet is a masonry 
spillway founded on solid rock ; the remainder of the dam is an earth 
embankment, with a concrete masonry core wall extending to the rock. 

The reservoir is nearly filled with water from the Nashua River, and 
from this portion of the Sudbury water-shed. 



a 



From Wachusett Reservoir to Chestnut Hill JReservoir. 

The water flows by an open waterway from the Wachus ^t Dam to 
the Framingham Reservoir No. 3. A 48-inch main pipe has been laid 
from the latter reservoir to Framingham Dam No. i, and through this 
pipe and a similar pipe previously laid the water flows into the Sudbury 
Aqueduct, and thence to the Chestnut Hill Reservoir. 

In the near future a new aqueduct to the Metropolitan District will 
be required. This will run from the Sud'bury Reservoir to a point in 
Weston a short distance west of Charles River ; its total length will be 
13.26 miles and its estimated cost ^3,226,000. This aqueduct at its 
terminus will be about 60 feet higher than Chestnut Hill Reservoir, so 
that it will furnish a supply by gravity, through pipes, to the lower part 
of the Metropolitan District. 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. 

An addition to the Chestnut Hill Pumping Station is building, and a 
new pumping engine for the high service, having a total capacity of 
30,000,000 gallons, will be added. A new -pumping station is to be 
erected easterly of the present pumping station for the low service, and 
three engines, each with a capacity of 35,000,000 gallons, have been 
contracted for. 

For the present Chestnut Hill Reservoir will remain the centre from 
which all water for the Metropolitan District must be distributed. Two 
lines of 48-inch pipe are required to be laid from Chestnut Hill Reser- 
voir to supply water to the communities nonft of the Charles River and 
to Spot Pond, which will be used as the main distributing reservoir for 
the low service system. This pond is 20 feet higher than Chestnut Hill 
Reservoir, and the water is pumped into it, for which the existing pumprs 
are used temporarily. The more easterly of these lines, which passes 
through Brookline, Cambridge, Somerville, Medford, Maiden, Melrose 
and the easterly part of Stoneham to Spot Pond, is now all laid, and 
the work upon the westerly line is far advanced. An important branch, 
48 inches and 42 inches in diameter, runs from the easterly line in 
Maiden to Everett and Chelsea, The high lands in the southerly part 
of the district will be supplied with water pumped at the existing high 
service pumping station at Chestnut Hill Reservoir, in which an addi- 
tional 30,000,000-gallon pumping engine is now being placed. The 
pipe lines from this station extend to Belmont on the north and to 
Quincy on the south, and are nearly all laid. The largest pipes of this 
system are 48 inches in diameter. The high lands in the northerly part 
of the district will be supplied from a high service reservoir located in 
an elevated portion of the Middlesex Fells, this reservoir to be supplied 
with water from a pumping station on the easterly shore of Spot Pond. 
The pipe lines of this system extend through Maiden and Medford to 
Somerville on the west and south, and through Everett, Chelsea, Revere 
and Winthrop to Breed's Island on the east. The largest pipes are 
36 inches in diameter. About 43 miles of pipe have been laid. About 
10 more miles of pipe will be required. 



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